Friday, March 28, 2014

Medieval Help Desk Reminds Us to Play to Learn

With new apps, new operating systems, and new devices delivering our daily information and entertainment for work and play, learning how to learn about new media technology is an essential part of media literacy. So how do we gain greater access to access? Start a discussion of strategies for learning new media technology with this classic video, "The Medieval Help Desk," from the Norweigan show "Øystein og jeg" (2001) written by Knut Nærum (with English subtitles).
The comedy setting is the moment when bound books replaced scrolls as the medium of choice for recording written knowledge. The difficulties between the monk and the new book medium offer opportunities to examine our own strategies for learning new interfaces, and the tech support character presents an example for us to compare to the teaching techniques that work and fail for us around acquiring new media skills.  For me, the new book-user monk's reluctance to play around with the book on his own is most poignant. His fear of messing up or losing data keeps him from engaging in the play that he needs in order to learn--and the tech support monk does not help him towards that exploration.

After the jump, I suggest a few questions for pre-viewing discussion, analysis of the humor and discussion about strategies for teaching and learning to use new communication technology.

Workshop Launches ML4ML at Open Mics, Open Minds Symposium

Well, we made the leap to launch, and now ML4ML is open for the sharing. Thank you to our workshop attendees at University of Rhode Island's humor communication symposium, Open Mics, Open Minds: An Exploration of Social Issues through Standup, organized by Writing&Rhetoric PhD. pursuant and kickboxing English language educator Jillian Bellanger. Special thanks to Renee Hobbs and the Harrington School of Communication & Media for hosting the event.

The one day symposium brought together an exciting mix of academics, educators, and comedians to talk about theory, practice and effects of humor communication. Identity politics in comedy was a central theme as keynote speaker Jerry Zolten reviewed the history of standup as revolving around ethnic and gender stereotypes from early 20th century acts mocking their own minority identities for White audiences to more modern comics challenging racist and sexist attitudes from multiple perspectives. Many of the workshops discussed the power dynamics between comedians and audiences, as well as teachers and learners, in relation to representations of social issues in humor. I loved hearing the mix of perspectives from practitioners of comedy on the stage alongside teachers using comedy in the classroom and scholars trying to know something about how humor works. And I thought it was a stroke of genius to place everyone in the position of comedy makers in the afternoon writing workshops, which was an eye-opening blast.

The conference convinced me that research agendas should emerge from such conversations between the various stakeholders in comedy discourses. I was left thinking about lingering questions raised at the conference: How do we create a safe and inviting forum for people to discuss their discomfort and offense around issues of race, gender and sexuality? What does a focus on humor about social issues in an educational or academic setting facilitate and inhibit for discussion of identity representations in media and our personal senses of social identity? When and why does humor open minds versus reinforcing firmly held beliefs and attitudes?

We'll see how responses to these questions unfold around for future posts and comments on ML4ML.

Sunday, March 16, 2014

Clearing Social Media Debts: Do You Need a "Human Bandwidth Manager"?

Overloaded with email? Tired of tweets? Pissed at pinterest? Instaslammed? If you ever feel guilt from neglecting social media participation or fatigue from trying to fit in connecting to all your online "friends," you're in good company. On last week's Portlandia episode (Season 4, Episode 3), Carrie Brownstein declares "Social Bankruptcy" taking the "nuclear option" to erase herself from the Internet and social media against the advice of her "human bandwidth manager." Kick off a discussion about love/hate relationships with social media using this clip.
The premise of posing a financial counselor for social media participation may be particularly poignant for college students, powerfully casting our time spent online as an investment. Possible discussion questions to pose before viewing: What are the techniques used to deliver the humor? What's the premise for each joke? What messages does the sketch deliver about the costs and benefits of retreating from social media use? What values and lifestyles are represented? What would happen to you or your friends if you took similar action to Carrie? How do you balance and value your social media participation and offline activities? Discussion could connect to classic media literacy activities like keeping a media diary/log for a week to assess your own time management and types of engagements, or experimenting with a media retreat to gain perspective on our investments in online culture and relationships.
An avalanche of messages buries Carrie. How would you visually portray your relationship to social media? 
The opening sequence of the Portlandia sketch visually communicates the prominence of social media messages in Carrie's character's life. How would you visualize the role of social media in your life? Production activity extensions might include making short documentaries on your social media commitments, or those of friends and family; or making your own comedy sketches to exaggerate the cost/benefits and parody media management strategies. You might even try creating interview scripts for the "human bandwidth manager" and improv roleplaying to discuss media management strategies.

Using humor to introduce discussions of love/hate relationships with communication technology may help to keep participants open to learning about each others strategies and styles of media management, rather than slipping into a mess of judgmental jockeying and defensiveness--especially with this sketch that gets at familiar feelings, both positive and negative. By showing the costs of extreme immersion and extreme withdrawal, the sketch opens up space discuss strategies of balance for digital media participation.

Saturday, March 15, 2014

Soundtracking Senator McConnell: Mobilizing Remix in Politics

Last night, Jon Stewart invited Daily Show viewers to join in the fun of setting a two and a half minute wordless campaign ad from Senator Mitch McConnell (R-KY) to music. As a moderate liberal democrat incensed by McConnells socially conservative republican leadership, Stewart regularly mocks McConnell on the show, often simply for his diction and appearance, which Stewart apes in the character of Cecil the Turtle from Looney Tunes.
Click the pic to see Stewart's call for remixing McConnell's campaign ad.
Aside from the obvious juvenile derision of a political adversary, Stewart's bit poses as pure Internet silliness--fun with remix culture. He shows the same few seconds of the ad with several different songs, showing how the music can change the message in myriad humorous ways. This suggests a fun and fruitful media literacy exercise lesson for any age group (hint: you don't have to use McConnell!). I'll offer some specific ideas and reflections on my experience doing similar remix activities with students (and Girl Scouts!) to develop media literacy after the jump. However, partisan political attacks aside, this Daily Show clip is more than just a call to mockery; buried in the lead is an important lesson on remix and convergence culture in politics. Stewart points out that McConnell most likely posted this 2m30s wordless ad in order to facilitate Super Pacs (political action committees) using and remixing the images in their own ads to support his campaign. Super PACs can collect and spend unlimited funds on political ads without disclosing sources of the money (as candidates must for donations over a certain amount), provided there is no collusion or communication between the politician and the Super PAC [Colbert did an absolutely hilarious series of segments exploiting and exposing how Super PACs work--a brilliant teaching resource on the topic]. Ask: How does McConnell's alleged strategy work? How does he intend to benefit? How do voters lose out in the process? So, McConnell offers these images to the public, affording him some direct control over his public image portrayed in remixed ads by the Super PACs supporting him without directly communicating with them.
[After the jump: More on this, w/ the Daily Show clip and ideas for soundtracking lessons for media literacy]

Friday, March 14, 2014

Limitations of the Medium: The Gettysburg Address Powerpoint

As I prepare for a few speaking engagements at academic conferences next weekend, I am keeping in mind lessons learned about what powerpoint presentations giveth, and what they taketh away from effective communication by sharing this classic by Peter Norvig--The Gettysburg Powerpoint Presentation.

Exploring various media in terms of their affordances and limitations is a classic approach to semiotics, and I wish all presenters considered how this powerpoint totally decimates the power of Lincoln's speech while still abiding by many principles for presenting clear information. It's a great piece to discuss with students before they design presentations, particularly in public speaking classes. What does the speech communicate that visuals do not? What makes the speech effective? Why are the visuals less effective? It also presents an opportunity for social studies students in middle school and high school to create a more effective powerpoint presentation for the speech. I'd introduce an audio recording or professional performance in a still shot on video, then show the powerpoint, and then show the clip from Ken Burns' Civil War--and ask students to shoot for something somewhere between Norvig's satire and Burns' film. Students could also go the other direction, and add all sorts of flashy visuals, video clips and preposterous image collages to create their own Gettysburg Address Powerpoint presentations that humorously show the limitations and common abuses of powerpoint features in public speech communication. Norvig has also posted a great story about the making of his powerpoint and the response he's gotten from it.

Back in 2003, Wired magazine hosted a "debate" of sorts pitting the view that "Powerpoint is Evil" from Yale Professor Edward Tufte, author of the Cognitive Style of Powerpoint monograph, against "Learning to Love Powerpoint" from new wave rock God and avant-garde artist David Byrne (front man of the Talking Heads). Tufte bemoans the use of Powerpoint in schools, arguing that the constraints of the software encourage poor visual communication. Byrne discusses how he moved from feeling limited by the software to exposing its limitations through mockery to transcending its constraints in art. Especially for college courses discussing multimodal composition, Tufte's tirade and Byrne's celebratory transcendence make for a fascinating contrast to approaching communication tools and how they shape our discourses. For any class, Byrne's art illustrates how playing with the affordances and limitations of media offers avenues for both critical commentary and self expression. DJ Alchemi posted a nice review of Byrne's powerpoint art in 2004 after arguing that the Tufte/Byrne "debate" was bogus. He also links to an NPR discussion with Byrne and some more presentation software art from DJ Spooky (using Keynote). I really like the idea of designing multimodal composition lessons starting with Tufte's critique and following Byrne's learning curve from mocking the medium in the medium as a means for learning its affordances and limitations, to transcending the rules and habits of communication imposed by the medium for artistic commentary, critique and self expression. So, there's an idea. Any takers?

And here's a bonus image for your Friday pleasure...
 I want a poster of this in my classroom.

"Strong Female Protagonist" Web Comic Features Strong Female Protagonist

I once heard someone say they were paraphrasing Mark Twain as saying, "The sign of a gifted intelligence is the ability to be ironic and sincere at the same time." By that standard, Strong Female Protagonist is a seriously smart comic--and funny, too.
Writer Brennan Lee Mulligan and artist Molly Ostertag spoof on the superhero genre while exploring the everyday struggles of female adolescence, as protagonist Alison Green, a.k.a. Mega-Girl, struggles to make a difference in the world beyond fighting and violence while negotiating celebrity culture.
Looking at what makes Alison/Mega-Girl different from most comic book heroes presents an opportunity to learn about the limitations of typical superhero comics. For a quick introduction, there's a great overview of the plot, characters and style of the comic by Mey in her "Drawn to Comics" column over at the Autostraddle blog ("News, entertainment...and Girl-On-Girl Culture"). I think this comic would make a great addition to any study of media constructions of heroism in high school or college English/Film/Media classes, particularly in relation to superheroes in comics or film genres where relatable "Strong Female Protagonists" are few and far between and questionable to downright sexist portrayals of women characters masquerading as good role models are the norm. More images and ideas after the jump.
[The comic includes some profanity and sexual situations, including same sex and transgender themes; as always, preview the content for your learning community to assess appropriateness].

Barbie Dolls Up Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Cover in Time for Women's History Month

When I saw the news that Barbie would be on this year's Sports Illustrated swimsuit magazine cover, and that it wasn't a joke, my brain short circuited with the absurdity of it, to the point where I could barely put words to my feelings. Thankfully, Stephen Colbert's comedy articulates the many, many things that are wrong with having a children's toy (marketed to girls) on the cover of a mainstream sports magazine's annual portfolio of barely clothed women models in seductive poses (marketed to men and boys).
"The swimsuit issue has always been a bastion of Civil Rights, from the occasional Black model to that one girl who was under 5'10""
Of course, he does it by satirically praising the move from a sexist, hetero-normative point a view that sharpens the clarity on how harmful and insidious this use of Barbie may be (as well as the worldview that justifies and condones it). I like the idea of using this humorous introduction to the issue with high school or college media studies students because it predicts and disarms many of the sexist rationales for justifying Barbie's appearance on the SI swimsuit issue cover.
"Empowerment. Because there's nothing more empowering to a model than being replaced by a piece of plastic... In some ways she's the perfect model...She doesn't blink. She doesn't move. She's too busy being empowered to talk."
I think it's especially challenging to get people to share and develop their opinions in dialogue across genders, sexualities, and interest groups with issues like this. But making your learning space safe for debate and growth is well worth the risks, trials and errors. Maybe a satirical frame can help. Some ideas for using this clip after the jump.

Thursday, March 13, 2014

Sikh Captain America Patrols NYC

A slight, brown-skinned man with a long beard and turban dons the costume of Captain America, takes up the star spangled shield, and hits the streets of New York City to confront racism and intolerance.
"Chill!--it's just a turban...Now let's kick some intolerant ass!"
This performance art from cartoonist/software-analyst Vishavjit Singh and photographer Fiona Aboud challenges expectations of who can represent America, patriotism, and American heroes. Their work makes a fantastic centerpiece for discussing race/ethnicity and media representation as well as how media construct heroes to represent our values--great for middle schoolers through college students. Singh posted a fine reflection at SikhNet on coming up with the idea and on his experiences as Captain America in NYC. His reflections in this piece offer 10 poignant life lessons he gleaned from his performance. Luckily, Hari Kondabolu, comedic correspondent for W. Kamau Bell's promising FX show Totally Biased (sadly canceled in November after 2 months), documented a hilarious segment of bystanders reactions to and interactions with Singh as Captain America on the streets of New York. So, after you activate some prior knowledge about Marvel's Captain America with discussion and notes about what comes to mind when students think of the character and/or images of American heroes in general, watch this clip and take a nice long session for doing a complete media literacy analysis with all the key questions [click here for NAMLE handout of ML KQ's]. It's worth watching it again, and pausing often for interpretation and discussion questions. The guy who changes his mind about Singh's performance from "racist" to "hilarious" and "great" within the conversation is particularly striking. Singh's reflection pieces in particular make him a great model for media literacy activism for social justice. Check out the clip:

How and why is this funny? What techniques are effective in delivering Singh's message to people on the street, and to the audience for the video? The final bit in the segment with the diverse race, gender, and sexualities for the Avengers characters (to join Sikh Cap) suggests a great exercise in rewriting or remaking a comic book page--handrawn, photoshopped, or using ComicLife. Be sure to engage students in reflective discussion on their intended messages and choices for representation. You could also make a connection to the trend toward diversity in superhero comics, as discussed here by Oscar winning screenwriter of 12 Years a Slave, and evidenced in the new Ms. Marvel reboot, which I will discuss in a subsequent post. I'd love to hear what you and yours make of Singh's Captain America. Who would you pose as his sidekick Bucky?

"That's Not an Argument": Rhetoric & Writing with Monty Python

I would argue... It has been said... Four out of five leading dentists rhetoric teachers agree... You are an idiot if you disagree... We all need to know what makes up an argument, and better yet a good argument, in order to practice our own skills for making (and winning) arguments. From evaluating newspaper editorials to analyzing TV news pundits, from engaging in comment thread squabbles to posting a substantive essay on a controversial issue, learning and mobilizing argument techniques is key for citizenship and cultural participation. Since my first year of teaching English and media studies 15 years ago, I have turned to Monty Python for help in introducing what an argument is and isn't--and it turns out I wasn't alone. Below, I share some great resources on using classic Python sketches to teach argument from FactcheckEd at UPenn Annenberg and the Argument Research Group at the UMichigan. But first, the funny... Sharpened pencils ready to note: What messages about what counts and does not count as argument (or good argument) does the "Argument Clinic" sketch communicate?

I love the opening mishap where the character looking for an argument wanders into "Abuse"; how many times has that happened to you, on and off line? There are some poignant moments of actually defining argument, which I highlight in the script quoted below [full script available here].
M: An argument isn't just contradiction.
O: Well! it CAN be!
M: No it can't!
M: An argument is a connected series of statements intended to establish a proposition.
O: No it isn't!
M: Yes it is! It isn't just contradiction.
O: Look, if I argue with you, I must take up a contrary position!
M: Yes but it isn't just saying 'No it isn't.'
O: Yes it is!
M: No it isn't!
O: Yes it is!
M: No it isn't!
O: Yes it is!
M: No it ISN'T! Argument is an intellectual process. Contradiction is just the automatic gainsaying of anything the other person says.
O: It is NOT!
M: It IS!
While the sketch does not explicitly delve into premise/support/conclusion or stance/evidence/warrant, I've linked to some strong resources for teaching such concepts, both of which use the "Argument Clinic" sketch as an introductory clip. FactcheckEd at UPenn Annenberg also has a great lesson on logical fallacy built around the "Witch Trial" scene from Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Here's that scene to whet your appetite for fallacious funniness:
In your comments, I'd love to see some arguments for/against using humorous pieces such as these (or this meta-essay on blog opinions from a prior ML4ML post), and some satirical use of logical fallacy--if you're up to it! I'll leave you with this nice quote from the Argument Research Group at UMichigan to underscore the broad applications for the skills and knowledge of argument techniques, which I argue we all benefit from knowing and practicing, and from teaching in an entertaining way:
The closing argument of a criminal trial, a formal proof in mathematics or a teenager's impassioned plea for a later curfew all require the speaker to take a position, offer compelling data, and explain the underlying assumptions that connect this data to the speaker's position.

Colbert on Telecomm Contracts, Privacy: Feds Bound More by Phone Service Agreement than U.S. Constitution

Here's a biting bit of irony blown up by the Colbert Report about the U.S. Department of Justice publicly suing Sprint for overcharging $21M on their top secret wiretapping service, which federal judges have declared illegal and unconstitutional.
"That takes balls. It's like a guy telling his wife, 'I'm suing the prostitute who gave us both herpes. And by the way, I go to prostitutes, and you have herpes."
How's that for a way to start off a discussion about government surveillance and taxpayer money? So, that joke in the caption probably makes this useful for discussion with the college/adult crowd only (who should also notice the casual insensitivity of using sex workers as a vehicle for the joke), but it's certainly worth discussing both the ethics/legality of government spying (especially in connection to some research about how they're spying a la the Snowden leaks), and Colbert's clever method for bringing up the fact that taxpayers pay for all of this. Of course, Colbert's satirical impersonation of a right wing pundit demands that he couch the economic issue as due to Obama's mistakes, which he brilliantly frames from the point of view of a disappointed parent chastising a kid for jacking up the family bill through irresponsible cell phone use.
"Someone is going to have to pay for this, sir. Because even the President of the United States is bound by his cell phone agreement, though apparently not by the Constitution."--Stephen Colbert
So, what's left out of that critique? For starters, taxpayers had been paying for the service either way, and now pay for the law suit. I'd love to hear from you--what are the most important questions to ask to frame debate about the ethics of government wiretapping/data-mining, transparency of government action, and use of taxpayer money? And what research questions does this piece inspire?
[clip autostarts after the jump]

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

K&P's Black Ice: Denotation, Connotation & Myth about Color & Race

Sketch Comedy & Semiotics! Use this Key & Peele sketch to introduce Roland Barthes' notions of denotation (primary, literal, explicit or commonsense meaning), connotations (secondary meanings or implications), and myth (bundles of historically constructed meanings that become naturalized as truth--like stereotypes or "universal" values). In "Black Ice," the Black weather correspondents become outraged at the connotations of the terms used for dangerous road conditions by their White news anchors who seem oblivious to the racial implications of their literal language. So, get ready to list all the ways the characters describe (and images portray) black ice in this video; then, identify connotations and denotations while making some notes about myths or stereotypes you see in the comedy:
Key & Peele manage to expose the myths of both the "outraged Black person who makes everything about race" and the "ignorant White person who is completely unaware of race issues." But what do they do with these stereotypes? Are they reinforced or subverted through the humor? To make this conversation more fruitful, back up and analyze how K&P communicate those myths--What techniques are used to get laughs about the stereotypes? This makes a great introduction to these basic semiotics concepts in high school English or college media studies, and could start some interesting conversation about race, stereotypes, and humor. Students could try their hand at writing comedy revealing connotations about stereotypes of their own ethnic or social group (always safest to speak about your own oppression), through a news sketch like this, or a short ad in print or video.

K&P have an interesting backstory and talk about using their biracial identities and abilities to "code switch" (change between speech patterns to fit social context) to explore stereotypes from multiple angles while showcasing the real diversity of Black masculinity across the range of their characters. Their most famous character, Luther the anger translator (for President Obama), also works to undo the double bind around the stereotype of the angry Black man. K&P's approach to humor about Black male identity would make a great research topic for interested students, especially in comparison to other comedians who take on the topic.

Remix Food Ads to Highlight Health Effects

This hilarious satirical ad from the Onion uses the trend towards "extreme" themes in snack food and soda advertising (think Doritos and Mountain Dew) to deliver a striking message about health costs of junk food [click image to see Onion news brief article].
Onion headline: "New Snack Chip Evades Digestive System, Burrows Straight Into Heart"
The Onion article goes for laughs by posing the design of the chip to impact the heart as a good thing, which calls attention to the real negative health effects of such foods. While the Onion exaggerates the detrimental effects, inverting the typical exaggeration of positive effects, you could also have fun remixing food ads to simply tell the truth about the nutritional value of snack foods in the overhyped style of their ads. You could do this with print ads, rewriting slogans and adding images. Or, make videos of commercials for products that pitch their health costs ironically as super fun. This would make a great media literacy lesson in health and science classes for middle school or high school students. Ads could be posted in hallways or online.

Unreality of Reality TV Revealed in 90s Sitcom

The other day I came across a rerun of the "Our 15 Minutes" episode of the sitcom Mad About You (1995) that hilariously shows all the different ways cameras and the prospect of being broadcast affect our behavior--to the point where we get confused about what it even means to be real and honest.
Jamie can't get a word in to warn her sister about the cameras documenting her embarrassing behavior.
The episode presents an amazing opportunity to discuss what sort of "reality" can be represented on reality TV shows, how people act on camera (especially when they know lots of people might see them in that moment), and how we feel about living with cameras around us all the time and the possibility of others sharing moments in our lives whenever. The show plays with relationship humor around a newlywed white couple in New York City, Paul (Paul Reiser) and Jamie (Helen Hunt), a documentary filmmaker and a public relations specialist. The episode begins with Jamie returning to their apartment to find Paul setting up cameras in every room to record 15 minutes of their lives for a PBS special on ordinary New Yorkers, "Just our lives, that's all they want to see. 15 minutes...A slice of life." Needless to say, they can't just "be themselves" as comedy ensues from their efforts to be interesting, edgy, and smart while hiding the messiness and mundanity of their lives. Try keeping a list of all the ways the cameras influence the characters, and the ways that cameras make problems when characters act truthful and authentic. Got your columns set up? Okay...check it out!
After the jump, I'll share my list and some resources for organizing viewing (times, scenes, themes, notes) as well as discussion and activity ideas. It's amazing to think about how this episode hits on so many of the issues with authenticity in reality TV when the genre was about to blow up with popularity and prominence. "Our 15 Minutes" aired around the same time of the third season of MTV's The Real World just before its success opened the floodgates of reality shows that have become dominant in television today. It's a fascinating case to study with a media studies or English class talking about fiction/non-fiction or documentary/entertainment, especially in comparison to contemporary examples. It also makes a great text following reflection and discussion of our own feelings about how reality TV today portrays reality, and about the (omni)presence of cameras, and video-sharing, in our lives. That's where I would start with high school or college students (although frank talk about sex--mild by today's standards--ensues before the couple can warn Jamie's sister about the cameras, which may be a little racy for some high school groups--fair warning! Skip it if you must 15:30-17:30).

Monday, March 10, 2014

Muppets Meta-Mock Instagram

How would you categorize these Muppets Instagram images?
 clockwise from top left: Swedish Chef selfie; invading Beeker's privacy; found sight gag of Gonzo; pranking Zoot with the old banana in the horn

Among my fondest early media literacy experiences was sitting in a theater watching the first Muppet Movie when the film appeared to break apart and get replaced by a scene of the muppets in a theater watching the film they had made break and complaining about the projection error. To promote the latest movie to the millennial generation, the Muppets have an Instagram site pulling the same tricks--making you laugh while seeing the construction of the stuff you enjoy. The site is a genre study of Instagram images--selfies, sight gags, photo bombs, ad remixes, celebrity shots, privacy invasions, etc. It's worth talking about for kids to explore and discover the unwritten, unspoken rules and categories that emerge, like a grammar in their social media just as in any other communications. Ask: What are the categories of images? Do you see commonly these types of pictures on Instagram sites of friends, celebrities, others? What do you notice about the production values of the images?
Playful marketing? Or, do the Muppets have "Evil Plans" to co-opt your authenticity in social media?

About half of the shots look like ads of different genres/styles with professional production; the kind of stuff a fan might forward to friends with excitement about a new release. The other half look like amateur shots, suggesting the idea that the muppets themselves took them. The attention to detail given to the amateur, "real" look of many of the images--poor framing, blurred exposures, low resolution--is quite remarkable. It's a nice clear example of mass media taking up the spontaneous aesthetics of grassroots media with calculated precision in order to sell back to the masses a familiar style. That makes this site a funny way learn about how big entertainment and marketing companies use emerging structures of communication as well as a way to examine how genres, codes and conventions structure our personal uses of social media.
[inspired by Steph Harmon at Junkee; activity ideas after the jump]